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The el-Amarna Hoard
From el-Amarna, Egypt18th Dynasty, 14th century BC
Egypt’s earliest money
These ingots and metal rings date from the fourteenth century BC and were found at el-Amarna. They give us rare archaeological evidence for Egypt’s earliest money system.
Before coins started to circulate in ancient Egypt around 500 BC, there was a system of values based on weights of gold, silver and copper. Metal measured in units of weight known as deben (around 90 g) could be used to settle bills and to trade. Records from the Eighteenth Dynasty (1550-1295 BC) show that often the actual metal did not change hands; instead it was used to value goods for exchange. Egypt had no easily accessible source of silver, but the Egyptian word for silver, hedj, came to mean something close to ‘money’.
The complete ingots from el-Amarna weigh around 3 deben (265-286 g) and the rings seem to be fractions of the deben.
British Museum

The el-Amarna Hoard

From el-Amarna, Egypt
18th Dynasty, 14th century BC

Egypt’s earliest money

These ingots and metal rings date from the fourteenth century BC and were found at el-Amarna. They give us rare archaeological evidence for Egypt’s earliest money system.

Before coins started to circulate in ancient Egypt around 500 BC, there was a system of values based on weights of gold, silver and copper. Metal measured in units of weight known as deben (around 90 g) could be used to settle bills and to trade. Records from the Eighteenth Dynasty (1550-1295 BC) show that often the actual metal did not change hands; instead it was used to value goods for exchange. Egypt had no easily accessible source of silver, but the Egyptian word for silver, hedj, came to mean something close to ‘money’.

The complete ingots from el-Amarna weigh around 3 deben (265-286 g) and the rings seem to be fractions of the deben.

British Museum

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hismarmorealcalm:

Statue of King Thutmose III  New Kingdom - Dynasty XVIII  Egyptian Museum  Photographer  Émile Brugsch

hismarmorealcalm:

Statue of King Thutmose III  New Kingdom - Dynasty XVIII  Egyptian Museum  Photographer  Émile Brugsch

(via isgandar)

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ancient-serpent:

Enamelled gold ring with rubies (Europe, 1550-75), the bezel in the form of a skull and cross-bones in a border of rubies with an enamelled rosette behind. V&A Museum
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golgothacommunicationsltd:

Hittite cuneiform script.

(via isgandar)

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diaphanee:

Agathos Daimon means “good spirit” and is a religious observance held on the second day of each lunar month, immediately following the Noumenia.  It is the third celebration of a trio of household monthly observances.  A good spirit usually refers to a type of divine being that is less powerful than a God, is personal to each family, and can bring the family good luck, protection, or some type of assistance.  Household spirits are usually seen as either snakes or a s a young man with a horn of plenty in hand. Although etymology indicates that Zeus was originally a sky god, many Greek cities honored Zeuses who lived underground. Athenians and Sicilians honored Zeus Meilichios (“kindly” or “honeyed”) while other cities had Zeus Chthonios (“earthy”), Katachthonios (“under-the-earth) and Plousios (“wealth-bringing”). These deities might be represented indifferently as snakes or men in visual art. They also received offerings of black animal victims sacrificed into sunken pits, as did chthonic deities like Persephone and Demeter, and also the heroes at their tombs. Olympian gods, by contrast, usually received white victims sacrificed upon raised altars.

diaphanee:

Agathos Daimon means “good spirit” and is a religious observance held on the second day of each lunar month, immediately following the Noumenia.  It is the third celebration of a trio of household monthly observances.  A good spirit usually refers to a type of divine being that is less powerful than a God, is personal to each family, and can bring the family good luck, protection, or some type of assistance.  Household spirits are usually seen as either snakes or a s a young man with a horn of plenty in hand.

Although etymology indicates that Zeus was originally a sky god, many Greek cities honored Zeuses who lived underground. Athenians and Sicilians honored Zeus Meilichios (“kindly” or “honeyed”) while other cities had Zeus Chthonios (“earthy”), Katachthonios (“under-the-earth) and Plousios (“wealth-bringing”). These deities might be represented indifferently as snakes or men in visual art. They also received offerings of black animal victims sacrificed into sunken pits, as did chthonic deities like Persephone and Demeter, and also the heroes at their tombs. Olympian gods, by contrast, usually received white victims sacrificed upon raised altars.

(via ancient-serpent)

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archaicwonder:

World’s oldest labyrinth illustration, c. 2000-1700 BC, BabyloniaIn Old Babylonian on clay showing a labyrinth of square and symmetric form.

archaicwonder:

World’s oldest labyrinth illustration, c. 2000-1700 BC, Babylonia

In Old Babylonian on clay showing a labyrinth of square and symmetric form.

(Source : schoyencollection.com, via ancient-serpent)

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Anonyme a dit: How was blasphemy in Egypt? I mean, was there a certain action or something some men did to insult gods?

thatlittleegyptologist:

As far as I’m aware, and looking on JSTOR aids me no further in this, there is such a concept in Ancient Egypt, but not much is attested before the Ptolemaic period. The Ptolemaic period is not one I’m qualified to talk about, unfortunately. I know too little about Greek culture. 

The only thing I can think of in terms of what we would describe as “blasphemous” would be defacing the image or showing disrespect to a god/gods. In Ancient Egypt, this would come under the guise of removing the name or image of the god, as by committing such an act the Egyptians believed that the god would cease to exist. This was very much the same with non-deities too (see: Hatshepsut, Akhenaten etc) and is known as damnatio memoriae. However, the only time we have this occurring in relation to a deity in Ancient Egypt, is in the reign of Akhenaten as he sought to erase other deities, particularly Amun who was chief deity in this period, in favour of the Aten. He instructed the priests to hack out the names of other deities, and even moved his capital away from Thebes so as to be no longer associated with the old pantheon. After Akhenaten’s death, all deities were reinstated and a practice known as “personal piety” became popular. Personal piety was a practice whereby a person would take their worship of deities into their own hands, leaving temples to their own worship. A personal relationship with the gods was a way to express their own feelings of gratitude and happiness on the one hand, and worries and sorrows on the other. The help of the gods was invoked for everyday emergencies: sickness and death, fertility and prosperity. Bes and Taweret were particularly popular with ordinary people, but personal devotion was also directed towards Amun of Thebes ”who is on the side of the one who is wretched” and Ptah ”on his wall”. For the protection of their young children against all possible threats, mothers appealed to the goddess Isis who had successfully brought up her son Horus in a hostile environment. The god Herpakhered (Harpocrates) was called upon to healsnake bites and scorpion stings. The deified sage Imhotep, King Djoser’s architect, was also worshipped as a healer. The Egyptians protected themselves against all possible dangers with amulets. The so-called “Hearing Ear” stele and other votive offerings which can be found in various collections show that the Egyptians believed that their prayers for help and succour had really been heard. An important expression of personal piety took shape in the mortuary cult. The deceased were a part of society. The tombs were visited regularly to bring offerings to the deceased. Meals of which the dead were also considered to partake were prepared near the tombs as well.

Most of the hacking out we see on temples nowadays was done by early Christians, who were re-purposing the temples for their own needs. They believed that the images of the Ancient gods were blasphemous to their own worship, and therefore sought to erase them and replace them with Christian symbols. We can see a lot of evidence of this at Philae.

There is one other thing that relates to blasphemy, though we have no idea of the practices outside of the text it’s in. The Book of the Dead contains a spell, known as Spell 125b, which are known as the “negative confessions” whereby the deceased could announce his innocence before the forty-two who were the assessors that judged the dead in the netherworld Hall of Justice, also known as the “Hall of the Two Truths”. Hence, this spell takes the form of an address to each of these “judgment gods”, who is named along with the specific plea before each god. These names of these gods were listed, together with an identification that was either a geographical region or some other identifying characteristic. The tribunal of judicial gods is frequently depicted in the illustrations accompanying Chapter 125b of the Book of the Dead, though only occasionally are all forty-two gods represented at once. More commonly, a representative selection of the gods is made, normally in the squatting position common to “seated god” hieroglyph, or standing. Sometimes they may hold knives, and at other times the feathers of ma’at as symbols of their judicial power. 

These forty-two gods apparently were believed to judge all forms of evil, though some might overlap to some extent. For example, two gods represented robbery and stealing, respectively, but apparently stealing offerings, food and bread specifically each deserved the attention of an individual member of the tribunal. However, it should probably be noted that these evils did not include all taboos specifically, which might include anything that upset ma’at. There is one taboo that is translated as “blasphemy” by some and is dealt with by “the serpent who brings and gives, of the silent land” However a better translation for it would be “damnation”

There is no attestation of this Spell or confession before the New Kingdom, so I cannot say that it was common practice. Nor can I say whether “blasphemy” was taboo in everyday life, or whether it was just a “confession” made in death to keep in line with ma’at. To do so would require further research into what extent the Egyptians themselves believed in the taboo, or whether it was just a part of religious practice to deny having committed the crime, but to ignore it in their actual lives. 

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ancientpeoples:

Jewellery of the child, Myt
11th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom
c.2051-2030 BC
About twenty royal ladies were buried in and around the temple of King Mentuhotep II at Deir el-Bahri. For six of these above-ground shrines were constructed that opened on to the colonnade surrounding the temple’s massive core structure. In the burial shaft east of the northernmost of these shrines Museum excavator Herbert E. Winlock discovered in the winter of 1920-21 the burial of Myt (“female cat”) that had been robbed but restored and resealed in Antiquity. Myt’s mummy was wrapped in several layers of linen sheets, and five necklaces were found between the layers around her head. The precious material and fine quality of her jewelry indicate that she must have been of high status, even though she was just a little girl five years old. It has been speculated that she was a daughter of Mentuhotep II, but there is no direct evidence for that.
(Source: The Metropolitan Museum)

ancientpeoples:

Jewellery of the child, Myt

11th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom

c.2051-2030 BC

About twenty royal ladies were buried in and around the temple of King Mentuhotep II at Deir el-Bahri. For six of these above-ground shrines were constructed that opened on to the colonnade surrounding the temple’s massive core structure. In the burial shaft east of the northernmost of these shrines Museum excavator Herbert E. Winlock discovered in the winter of 1920-21 the burial of Myt (“female cat”) that had been robbed but restored and resealed in Antiquity. 
Myt’s mummy was wrapped in several layers of linen sheets, and five necklaces were found between the layers around her head. The precious material and fine quality of her jewelry indicate that she must have been of high status, even though she was just a little girl five years old. It has been speculated that she was a daughter of Mentuhotep II, but there is no direct evidence for that.

(Source: The Metropolitan Museum)

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ancientdelirium:

Akhenaten by sergiothirteen on Flickr.
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ancientpeoples:

Mummy mask of Aphrodite, daughter of Didas
From Hawara, Egyptabout AD 50-70
A young woman aged 20
In the Egyptian funerary tradition this type of gilded mask acted as a substitute for the head of the deceased, and bestowed attributes of various deities, helping them to reach the Afterlife. These masks date from the beginning of the Roman occupation of Egypt from around 30 BC. Some of the masks, like this one, are inscribed with the name of the owner, with additional personal details.
The mask has some sense of an actual portrait. It shows a woman with a sad or stern face, holding a wreath of pink flowers across her chest. She wears a tunic with a vertical purple band, now black, which drapes realistically across her chest. Her black hair is arranged in three tiers of curls, with ringlets dropping to her shoulders. Details of her eyebrows, eyes and lashes are picked out in black and white. The inscription naming her is placed behind the gilded edge of the veil on her head and shoulders. Her jewellery, typical of this type of mask, consists of a pendant on a chain around her neck, decorated with three deities, ball earrings, elaborate snake bracelets and an armlet.
Source: British Museum

ancientpeoples:

Mummy mask of Aphrodite, daughter of Didas

From Hawara, Egypt
about AD 50-70

A young woman aged 20

In the Egyptian funerary tradition this type of gilded mask acted as a substitute for the head of the deceased, and bestowed attributes of various deities, helping them to reach the Afterlife. These masks date from the beginning of the Roman occupation of Egypt from around 30 BC. Some of the masks, like this one, are inscribed with the name of the owner, with additional personal details.

The mask has some sense of an actual portrait. It shows a woman with a sad or stern face, holding a wreath of pink flowers across her chest. She wears a tunic with a vertical purple band, now black, which drapes realistically across her chest. Her black hair is arranged in three tiers of curls, with ringlets dropping to her shoulders. Details of her eyebrows, eyes and lashes are picked out in black and white. The inscription naming her is placed behind the gilded edge of the veil on her head and shoulders. Her jewellery, typical of this type of mask, consists of a pendant on a chain around her neck, decorated with three deities, ball earrings, elaborate snake bracelets and an armlet.

Source: British Museum

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explore-blog:

The original Beautiful Mind, right here – a page from Sir Isaac Newton’s notebooks, courtesy of the Cambridge University Library.
Though Newton considered “making pies on Sunday” one of his 48 self-professed sins, he clearly had no reservations about making pi’s. 
Peek inside more famous creators’ notebooks here, and also see Van Gogh’s never-before-revealed sketchbooks.
(via @erik_kwakkel)

explore-blog:

The original Beautiful Mind, right here – a page from Sir Isaac Newton’s notebooks, courtesy of the Cambridge University Library.

Though Newton considered “making pies on Sunday” one of his 48 self-professed sins, he clearly had no reservations about making pi’s. 

Peek inside more famous creators’ notebooks here, and also see Van Gogh’s never-before-revealed sketchbooks.

(via @erik_kwakkel)

(Source : explore-blog, via ancient-serpent)

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ancientart:

Kitchen Tender being Rowed. Egyptian, ca. 1981–1975 B.C., from the Tomb of Meketre.

Many outings of Egyptian nobles culminated in a picnic. On the menu for Meketre’s boat trip were roasted fowl, dried beef, bread, beer, and some kind of soup. Meat and bread were carried on another model of a tender, now in Cairo. Here, the beer is prepared and the soup cooked. A blackened trough may have contained burning coal for roasting the fowl. A man tends a stove on which soup simmers. On either side, a woman grinds grain. Brewers inside the cabin are shaping bread loaves, then working them through sieves into large vats. One brewer stands in another vat, where he tramples the dates that provide the sugar for the fermentation of the beer. The oars of this boat are fixed to the sides; to avoid damaging the oars while the boats were transported and deposited in the model chamber, all oars of Meketre’s boats were secured in this manner. (met)

Courtesy of & currently located at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, via their online collections20.3.3.

(via thatlittleegyptologist)

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allsudaneverything:

Beautiful hieroglyphic carvings in North Khartoum, Sudan. 

allsudaneverything:

Beautiful hieroglyphic carvings in North Khartoum, Sudan. 

(via faimi)

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mediumaevum:

  1. Ottonian crown on display at Essen’s cathedral treasury, ca. 1100. Long believed to be the infant crown of king of Romans Otto III
  2. Long called the Crown of St. Louis and thought to have been made in Paris, the Crown of Liège, acquired by the Louvre in 1947, is now known to be a Mosan piece (late 13th century)
  3. Crown of Elizabeth Kotromanic (born ca. 1339) in Zadar, given by Louis I of Hungary
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design-is-fine:

Pharmacy interior and vessels, 17th century. Bavaria, Schärding/Inn, Germany. Via Dorotheum.

(via elucubrare)

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